Immigration to Spain has seen a significant increase in recent months, especially from Africa. This phenomenon has led to demographic growth and cultural diversification in the country. Below are some data and an analysis of how the relocation of these people is being managed in the different provinces of the peninsula.
1. Immigration Data
According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), during the first half of 2022, the population of Spain increased by 182,141 people, standing at 47,615,034 inhabitants. This growth was due to a positive migratory balance of 258,547 people. In total, 478,990 people from abroad established their residence in Spain, which represents an
increase of 137.9% compared to the first semester of 2021. In addition, according to the Ministry of the Interior, between January 1 and September 14, 2023, 25,292 immigrants arrived in Spain by sea and land. Of these, 14,359 arrived in the Canary Islands by sea.
2. Immigrant Relocation
The relocation of immigrants arriving in Spain is being managed through various programs. One of them is the relocation mechanism among European Union Member States, which allows managing flows of applicants from Member States with higher migratory pressure, including Spain, to other Member States.
In addition, the Spanish Government has been distributing thousands of immigrants throughout the peninsula. For example, 321 have been located in a closed hotel in Almería, another 200 in Mérida in a youth hostel, and 250 in a spa in Medina del Campo. Almost 11,000 places are also being prepared in barracks, hotels, and hostels to accommodate more immigrants.
3. Relocation Criteria
Although no specific criterion has been specified for the relocation of immigrants, the Government has been making efforts to distribute immigrants equitably throughout the country. However, there have been criticisms for the lack of coordination and information in the distribution of immigrants.
4. Job Vacancies in Spain
Currently, there are around 100,000 job positions that are permanently vacant in Spain. In addition, there are 92,541 jobs available in Spain according to Indeed.com. The most demanded jobs in Spain in 2023 include teacher, doctor, nurse, ECommerce manager, customer service specialist, real estate agent, community manager, and
5. Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market
The arrival of immigrants in Spain can have several effects on the labor market. On the one hand, immigrants can help fill job vacancies, especially those that are manual and are being lost. This can help improve the efficiency of the labor market and maintain certain sectors of the economy that depend on manual labor. On the other hand, immigration can also put pressure on the wages of native workers. However, some economists argue that the impact of immigration on wages has been scarce.
6. Labor Integration of Immigrants
The labor integration of immigrants in Spain is a crucial aspect to ensure that immigration has a positive impact on the labor market. According to a report from the Spanish Observatory of Racism and Xenophobia (OBERAXE), a quantitative analysis is being carried out on the similarities and differences between the labor situation of native and foreign people.
7. Business Preparedness for the Arrival of Immigrants
Companies in Spain are adopting various strategies to prepare for the arrival of immigrants. Here are some ways they are doing it:
1. Creation of Companies by Immigrants: Immigrants in Spain are creating their own companies, contributing to Spanish economic dynamism. These companies can be ethnically oriented, catering to the demand for products, symbols, and services from the local communities of immigrants.
2. Incorporation of Foreigners into the Labor Market: The Spanish Government has approved a reform to facilitate employers hiring foreigners in their countries of origin and opening new avenues for immigrants already living in Spain to regularize and work.
3. Precontract of Work for Foreigners: Once the foreign worker arrives in Spain and the conditions of the precontract of work for foreigners are made official, the employer has three months to register their registration in Social Security.
4. Added Value of Migrants: Immigrants are great entrepreneurs and are contributing to the success of companies in Spain. For example, almost half of successful companies in the United States are or were founded by immigrants. These strategies not only help companies prepare for the arrival of immigrants but also promote inclusion and diversity in the workplace.
In conclusion, immigration to Spain is a complex phenomenon that requires careful and coordinated management. Despite the challenges, the arrival of immigrants also brings opportunities for growth and cultural diversification in the country. It is essential that the Spanish Government and companies continue to work together to ensure successful integration of immigrants into Spanish society and economy. Cultural diversity and labor inclusion are fundamental for Spain’s sustainable development in the future. Immigration, if managed correctly, can be a source of
strength and resilience for the Spanish economy and society.